Ceremonial Monochrome Wares of the Ming Dynasty


Exhibition catalogue
written and presented by Elsa Favreau



Copyright © 2006 by Elsa Favreau


Ceremonial Monochrome Wares of the Ming Dynasty

Exhibition Catalogue


 

 

 

Front Cover:

·        Bowl with monochrome white glaze, Jingdezhen, Jiangxi province.

Hongzhi mark and period ( r.1488-1505) Height: 9cm, Diameter: 20,2 cm. The British Museum.

 

·        Stem cup, porcelain with fresh red glaze. Jingdezhen. Yongle period (r. 1403-1424).

Height: 10,5 cm.Courtesy of the Trustees of the Victoria and Albert museum.

 

·        Yellow Bowl with rounded sides and slightly flared rim, covered with a yellow enamel. Height: 8.5 cm, Diameter: 18,5 cm. 15th century, Ming Dynasty, Hongzhi Emperor ( r.1488-1505), Percival David Foundation A558.

 

Ming Dynasty, Wanli (r.1573-1620) mark and period. Height: 4, 3 cm. Diameter: 24 cm. The British Museum.


Important rulers of the Ming Dynasty

 

·       Hongwu (r.1368-1398)

·       Yongle (r.1403-1424)

·       Xuande (r.1426-1435)

·       Chenghua (r.1465-1487)

·       Hongzhi ( r.1488-1505)

·       Zhengde ( r. 1506-1521)

·       Jiajing (r.1522-1566)

·       Longqing (r.1567-1572)

·       Wanli ( r.1573-1619)

 

 

 

 

 


Ceremonial Monochrome Wares of the Ming Dynasty

Exhibition catalogue

 

 

“The colourful banners are displayed in all four quarters”[1]

 

The subject of this exhibition focuses on monochrome wares used for ceremonials and sacrifices during the Ming dynasty.

The exhibition aims at showing Ming monochromes related to ceremonial purposes. Each ceremonial ware, called “jiqi” in Chinese, is connected to a different colour- this colour being itself related to one of China’s sacrificial temples where the imperial ceremonies were held.

 

Bright as Ming

 

Though coloured glazes already existed during the Tang dynasty (618-907) and even before, it is during the Song dynasty (960-1279) that a new interest in glazing basic colours emerged. Nonetheless, this interest grew even bigger during the Ming period (1368-1644) when the glazing techniques in coloured wares were particularly achieved. As John Ayers asserts in his introduction to the second volume of The Baur Collection:

 

            “In colour, (Ming porcelains) may be said to achieve a richness and sonority only rivalled elsewhere, perhaps, in the finest pottery of the Islamic world. The finest imperial porcelains of the 15th century in particular show a remarkable finesse in all departments, and an assurance of taste that compels us to regard this as one of the most inventive periods in the history of ceramic design: it is not without justice that Chinese critics of later times have ranked these alongside the major classic wares of the Song.”[2]

 

Even though some Ming wares were criticised for relying their aesthetic success on some of the principles of form and colour that had graced the classic wares of the Song, a current consensus amongst historians and art historians assesses that the Ming period was a flourishing dynasty in regards to art and therefore porcelain[3]. Monochromes, in particular, held a material position in arts during the Ming dynasty, under which some of the most technically advanced pieces were accomplished.

 

 

Monochrome

 

The word “monochrome” originates in the two Greek words “mono” and “kroma” and in the same way refers to two definitions, two techniques, hence two types of wares. The first definition stands for porcelain with a coloured glazed fired at high temperature together with the body, whereas the second one defines wares produced by using an enamel colour over already glazed white porcelain and fired at a lower temperature. Sometimes these two groups are also divided into “the monochrome glazes” (the first one) and the “monochrome enamels” (the second one).

 

Ming Ceremonials

 

Famous classical Chinese texts such as The MingShi (History of the Ming Dynasty), The DaMingHuiDian (The Collected Statues of The Ming Dynasty), The MingShiLu (The Veritable Records of the Ming Emperors) or The Siku Quanshu (The Complete library of the Four Categories of Books) affirm that state sacrificial ceremonies have played an important part in Chinese history. Indeed, in Chinese thoughts, the Emperor stood for the Son of Heaven and demonstrated his legal right to control the “Middle Kingdom”by offering sacrifices to Gods. Not only were all ceremonial vessels made of porcelain[4] but a great number of traditional Chinese beliefs assumed that wares of particular colours were chosen for ceremonial purposes.[5] These beliefs are partly due to a decision made by HongWu in 1369  that ritual vessels for imperial ceremonies had to be monochrome glazed porcelains of particular auspicious colours.[6] Moreover, it is worth noting the explicit and deliberate use of terms such as “sacrificial red” (“jihong”) and “sacrificial blue” ( “jilan”) found in the records of Qing scholars when alluding to red and blue wares. These terms exemplify the intrinsic link existing between the Ming ceremonials and the monochromes wares.

 

Blue, red, yellow and white were the four colours assigned to embody four temples in Beijing and through them, the Gods they represented. Blue wares characterizing the Altar of Heaven (Tiantan), yellow wares the Altar of Earth (The Diqitan), white wares the Altar of the Moon ( Xiyuetan) and red wares the Altar of the Sun (Chaoritan)[7]. The shapes of the wares exhibited are those of classical state ceremonial purposes such as bowls, plates, dishes, ewers, stem cups.

 

Red, Blue, Yellow and White or Earth, Heaven, Sun and Moon

 

Blue as Heaven

 

The Mingshi indicates that at the Temple of Heaven (Tiantan), a ceremony in various hues of blue took place. Indeed, the emperor, while wearing a “robe of azure”[8], worshipped the gods of Heaven by decorating the round three-tiered “Huanqiutan” (the Circular Mound Altar) with blue glazed ceramic tiles[9]. Apart from the terrace, the inside was also decorated in such a way that blue appeared in several shades and thus came to light as the main decorating colour.

Although rare due to the expensive cost of cobalt, the high-fired cobalt blue monochromes became popular during the 15th century[10]. This technique began to be employed as a self-colour at the very same period (15th and 16th century). Cobalt used at this time partly came from China (starting from the Xuande reign[11]) and from foreign countries[12]. Imported cobalt came from as far afield as Persia, and was considered to be of superior quality to the local Chinese variety (which contained impurities).

Paradoxically blue monochromes are amongst the rarest ones while the Temple in which they were used ( The Temple of Heaven) stands for the most important in Chinese culture and history.

           

Red as the Sun

 

Although abolished under Hongwu (r.1368-1398), the offerings to the God of Sun  were restored under the Jiajing Emperor (r.1522-1566). Following the traditional architecture and decoration of the two major temples (Tiantan and Diqitan), the Altar of the Sun (The Chaoritan) had a red glazed surface and was decorated with red tiles as well as red items – all of them symbolising the Sun. The term “sacrificial red” seems to have originated from the use of stem cups for the worship of God[13].

First in the field, red coloured wares probably stood for the most famous Chinese monochromes. However difficult was the production of bright red colours, it was during the early Ming period, under the Hongwu Emperor, that “fresh red” or “bright red” was achieved. These reduced copper red glazes monochromes varied from orange-red to pinkish grey. Yet, red monochromes reached their zenith under the Xuande Emperor when these wares combined an outstanding porcelain quality status and an imperial ritual porcelain status at the same time.[14] 

Indeed, the innovation during the Ming Dynasty was that the potters mastered the reduction firing techniques for the oxide of copper and in the 15th century the colour became quite brilliant and deep.[15]

 


White as the Moon

 

In the same way that Emperor Hongwu had abolished offerings to The Chaoritan, the Altars of the Moon (The Xiyuetan) had to wait for its restoration by Jiajing to pursue his offerings to the Moon. Following the harmonious traditional style, the Xiyuetan was decorated in white as a symbol of the moon. According to the Classical Chinese texts mentioned above, white ceremonial wares were particularly used in the sacrifices offered to the imperial ancestors as well as in royal tombs.

Regular porcelain glaze, white wares were Xuande’s favourites.

The “porcelain pagoda”, faced with white porcelain bricks, he built in honour of his father Hongwu stands for an evidence of the leading role of white wares during ceremonies.[16] Moreover, in terms of technology the pure white porcelain itself was distinguished for being exceptional. The KoKuYaoLun, manual for the literati class to appreciate antiquities and utensils describing it as “white and brilliant”.[17]

 

Yellow like Earth

The Diqitan (Altar of Earth), where the ceremonies dedicated to the God of Earth took place, used to have its platform covered by yellow glazed bricks, while the prayer offered to God was written on yellow paper in black writing.[18] In the same way that the blue colour reigned on the Tiantan, the yellow colour shined on the Diqitan. 

The yellow colour, sometimes called “imperial yellow”[19] stands for a new glaze specific to the Ming Dynasty. The first innovative shade to be introduced was very clear and derived from an antimoniate of iron. It was sometimes applied in a second firing as an underglaze on the high-fired feldspathic glaze ( resulting in a clear brilliant yellow, exhibit 9)  and some other times the yellow glaze was put directly onto the high-fired body ( resulting in a darker yellow colour, exhibit 11).

 

In the same way that the sacrificial ceremonies combined different shades of a main colour theme, each piece of the sixteen exhibited has been grouped according to its general colour.

This exhibition is thus divided into four parts (Blue, Red, Yellow and White). The exhibits were all produced in the most important manufacturing centre for porcelain in China, Jingdezhen, in Jiangxi Province. They have been temporarily borrowed from the Percival David Foundation (London), the British Museum (London) and the Hong-Kong Museum of Art (Hong-Kong).

 

 


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

                               

  Blue as Heaven

 


    

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

        

1. Dish with cobalt deep blue glaze. Covered on both sides with deep blue glaze, it has rounded sides and a straight rim. It is moulded inside with dragons round the side.

On the white base is the Xuande six-character mark in a double ring in blue.[20]

Diameter: 20, 3 cm.

Ming Dynasty.

Percival David Foundation A501

 

As for piece number 1, the mark on the white base enables us to date the object and thus to specify elements concerning the extremely dark shade of the colour. This blue resulted from the cobalt imported from China, also called “Sumatran blue” used throughout the Ming dynasty. The dark blue colour results from the black and silver specks contained in this cobalt.

The shape is characteristic of the dishes offered to the God of Heaven in Tiantan. Representing the so-called “sacrificial blue” wares, this piece also stands for a typical feature of Xuande (r.1426-1435) wares. Indeed, dragons were the usual designs found on highly decorated porcelain during the Xuande era. They were often used as a symbol of imperial power.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2. Blue brush washer with wide base and low flaring, fluted sides. The object is blue glazed inside, outside and on the base. The foot ring reveals a very white body burnt pale orange-brown on the inner side. An incised double line runs round the outside just above the foot. In the centre of the dish is a small firing crack, pin holes and a patch of grit. On the base is a six character mark of Jiajing in a double ring.[21]

Height: 5, 3

Diameter: 18,4cm

Ming Dynasty

Percival David Foundation A531

 

This brush washer is characteristic of the dark blue monochromes famous under the Jiajing Emperor (r.1522-1566). The reign mark underneath enables us to date the object and thus to specify elements concerning the extremely dark shade of the colour. This blue resulted from the cobalt imported from China, also called “Sumatran blue” used throughout the Ming dynasty.

Cobalt with its rich, dark blue properties, black and silver specks where thickly applied is behind the extremely elegant shade of this blue.

This brush washer is emblematic of the so-called “sacrificial blue” wares.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3. Dark blue bowl with incised dragons on the exterior. The bases are covered with a brown slip.

Diameter: 18, 3 cm.

Late Ming.

Hong Kong Museum of Art.[22]

 

Covered with a cobalt blue glaze, this bowl is on both typical of the dark “sacrificial blue” (“jilan”) famous under the Ming Dynasty and representative of the “bowl” shaped wares offered to the God of Heaven during ceremonials.

Its incised decoration enables us to affirm its late Ming dating. Indeed, during the 16th century (most certainly around the Emperor Wanli’s reign) there was an abundance of material and, in this one, some of the dark blue monochromes have incised decoration. This bowl has incised decoration on the outside. A slightly bigger bowl with incised decoration in the inside is in the Percival David Foundation ( PDF 501). The piece in the PDF has a coffee glazed rim and black stained unglazed base.

The dragons allude to the imperial power of the Ming dynasty. 

 

 

 

 

4. Incised dish with monochrome blue glaze. Jingdezhen, Jiangxi Province.

Ming Dynasty, Wanli (r.1573-1620) mark and period.

Height: 4, 3 cm.

Diameter: 24 cm.

The British Museum

 

 

Wanli was the longest reigning monarch of the Ming dynasty. Although the excavation of his tomb was particularly rich in blue-and-white porcelain, a few monochromes were found. Amongst them was this round- sided dish. With an everted lip and a tapering foot, which has sunk slightly in the centre during the firing process, the dish is covered inside and out with a rich monochrome blue glaze. The glaze has crept away from the rim during the firing, attractively exposing the pure white porcelain underneath.[23]

Underneath the vessel is an incised design of full-frontal dragon. The dragon is surrounded by ruyi (meaning “ as you wish”)  clouds inside. Outside two dragons are chasing flaming pearls.

The specific mark of Wanli was composed of six characters: “ Daming wanli nianzhi” (meaning made during the Ming Dynasty, Wanli reign period).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Red as the Sun

 

5. Dish monochrome copper-red glaze.

Jingdezhen, Jiangxi Province.

Ming Dynasty,Yongle period ( r.1403-1424)

Height: 4 cm.

Diameter: 20, 3cm.

The British Museum

 

Under Yongle, red wares were made in very small quantities. This dish, used for ceremonial purposes, has an everted rim and a tapering foot ring. It is covered inside and out with a monochrome speckled “ fresh” copper red glaze. The colour is said to be of outstanding quality. The glaze has bled away from the rim leaving the white porcelain body exposed.

The whole surface of the dish is pitted with tiny pin pricks and the centre is sunken in the firing. The base is covered with a blue-tinged transparent glaze. [24]

Yongle monochrome red wares appear  to be speckled with layer upon layer of red colour which has a depth and vibrancy in contrast with the previous red wares ( which had a pinkish-red tone) achieved under Hongwu.

 


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

6. Stem cup, porcelain with fresh red glaze. Jingdezhen. Yongle period (r. 1403-1424).

Height: 10,5 cm.

Courtesy of the Trustees of the Victoria and Albert museum.

 

Although ninety-eight per cent  of the finds from the Jingdezhen  stratum attributed to Yongle’s reign are white wares, the use of copper continued during his reign.  It has been argued that red copper wares from the Yongle period were not “high”[25]. Still, the shape typically symbolizes the “sacrificial red” wares offered to the God of the Sun

In contrast to the previous red wares, Yongle monochromes are speckled with layer upon layer of red colour of greater depth than the Hongwu pinkish red tone.

The Yongle mark consisted of 4 characters, which could be read “ Yongle nianzhi” (made in the reign of Yongle). Yongle was the emperor who introduced reign marks. The introduction of reign marks changed the status of ceramics within the history of Chinese porcelain.


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

7. Copper red bowl with rounded sides and slightly flared rim. The bowl is covered with a rich copper-red glaze, white at the rim. The base of the piece is covered with a plain glaze on which is a six-character mark of Xuande in a double ring in underglaze blue.

Height: 8, 2 cm

Diameter: 18, 8 cm.

Ming dynasty, 14th-15th century, probably Xuande period.[26]

Percival David Foundation A529.

 

Copper red wares have existed since the 14th century but it is not until the 15th century that a deep, rich colour was obtained. This vessel, standing on a well-cut foot ring from which rises the wounded sides, mostlikely represents the splendour of the 15th century. Indeed the red magenta colour, deep and brilliant, as well as the curdled texture is characteristic of the outstanding red copper wares produced under Xuande. Minutely pitted where tiny bubbles burst on its surface, the glaze produces the so-called orange peeled effect.

Moreover, the white mouthrim, “where the glaze ran thin and the copper volatilized”[27] is another characteristic of 15th century monochrome wares.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

8. Porcelain bow with copper-red glaze. Jingdezhen.

Xuande (r.1426-1435) mark and period.

Height: 7,6cm

Courtesy of the trustees of the British Museum.

Openheim Bequest.

 

This vessel, lik vessel no.7, is characteristic of the extraordinarily elegant and extremely successful Xuande copper red wares. This dark “sacrificial red” was considered  such an elegant shade that even later emperors attempted to have it recreated.

Both the outside and the inside of the bowl are glazed.

The red glazes achieved under Xuande comprise the same transparent glaze of blue -and -white painted wares with a half to one per cent of copper oxide added. Slightly underfired, the copper of this bowl has a mottled appearance in contrast to Qing monochromes.

The bowl shape is one of the several shapes used under Xuande known at present[28], particularly used during sacrificial ceremonials and offerings to the God of the Sun.[29]


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Yellow like Earth


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

9. Yellow Bowl with rounded sides and slightly flared rim, covered with a yellow enamel over a plain felspathic glaze. The base is covered with a bluish-white glaze on which lies a six mark of Hongzhi in a double ring in underglaze blue.[30]

Height: 8.5 cm.

Diameter: 18,5 cm.

15th century, Ming Dynasty, Hongzhi Emperor ( r.1488-1505)

Percival David Foundation A558.

 

Clarity and purity of the glaze are the two terms often used to characterise Hongzhi yellow monochromes. This bowl, today in the Percival David Foundation in London, represents the great number of yellow vessels used to decorate the Altar of Earth during Ming ceremonials. Its light colour characterizes the yellow monochromes of the 15th century. Indeed, a much warmer and browner yellow appeared during the 16th century.

Hongzhi marks were six neat delicate pale blue kaishu characters, which read “DaMing Hongzhi Nianzhi” ( Made in the Ming Dynasty, Hongzhi reign period).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

10. Dish with rounded sides and straight rim. Covered inside and outside with a pale yellow enamel over a plain felspathic glaze.

Six-character mark of Hongzhi in a double ring in blue on the plain glazed base.

The Chinese character” Tian” ( “heaven”) has been cut through the enamel outside near the slightly inclined foot-ring.[31]

Ming Dynasty, Hongzhi mark and period ( 1488-1505)

Percival David Foundation 599

 

           

 

Hongzhi mark which reads

“Daming Hongzhi Nianzhi”

(Made in the Ming Dynasty, Hongzhi reign period).

 

 

11. Dish with  yellow monochrome glaze.

Jingdezhen Jiangxi Province.

Hongzhi mark and period (r. 1488-1505)

Height: 4,4cm.

Diameter:17,8 cm.

The British Museum

 

This dish, covered inside and out with a monochrome “ buttercup – yellow” glaze, has rounded sides, an everted rim and a tapering foot.  Yellow monochrome wares stand for the first real new colour of the monochrome list of the 15th century, 

Although best known for its green and white wares, the Hongzhi yellow monochromes are characterised by their delicate yellow colour and the clarity of their glaze. The clarity as well as the  purity of the colour come from the fact that the colour is normally an overglaze one fluxed with lead, so that the piece has beneath the yellow –which is applied before a second firing- an ordinary felspathic glaze.[32]

The base carries a six-character Hongzhi reign mark in a double ring. Most of the Hongzhi marks were six  delicate blue kaishu characters, which read “Daming Hongzhi Nianzhi” ( Made in the Ming Dynasty, Hongzhi reign period).

Another type of this dish is in Paris, in the Musée Guimet.

 

12. Dish with monochrome yellow glaze.

Jingdezhen, Jiangxi province.

Ming Dynasty.Hongzhi mark and period ( r.1488-1505)

Height: 4, 6cm.

Diameter: 21, 5 cm.

The British Museum

 

Although perfectly emblematic of Jenyns affirmation according to which “ the tastes of the Court during this period leant towards yellow [...] monochromes” [33], this vessel differs from the previous one. It has rounded sides and a tapering foot. The yellow monochrome glaze is thin and is worn through in patches to the white porcelain body. Like most of the wares achieved under Hongzhi, on the convex base of the dish appears the blue Hongzhi reign mark in a double ring. Hongzhi ’s mark, which read “Daming Hongzhi Nianzhi” ( Made in the Ming Dynasty, Hongzhi reign period) was composed of six delicate pale blue kaishu characters.

This soft yellow-coloured dish stands for the decorating ceremonial vessels traditionally used in honour of the God of Earth, in the Diqitan, in Beijing.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

White as the Moon


 

13. Bowl with incised and moulded decoration beneath a monochrome white glaze.

Jingdezhen, Jiangxi province.

Hongwu  period ( r.1368-1398)

Height: 10 cm.

Diameter: 21 cm.

The British Museum

 

The thickly potted bowl has rounded sides, an everted rim and a spreading foot ring. The inside is incised with an S shaped double-ended ruyi ( meaning “ as you wish”) cloud motif. The sides are moulded with two phoenix.  The bowl is covered with a glossy monochrome white glaze and gritty flaws. It has a deep foot and the base is dug in further than the join of bowl to foot. An identical bowl is in the PDF ( PDF A451)

Wares from the Hongwu  era tend to have a rather a yellowish cast to the glaze and are less blue than  those of the Yuan era.

This item was used for ceremonial purposes. In China, white represents the colour of mourning. It has been argued that white vessels were offered to the God of the moon in order to placate the spirits of the royal ancestors and to invite them to intercede in the underworld on behalf of the living.[34]

The dating of this piece also marks its great importance. Indeed, Hongwu was the one to have decreed, in 1369, that all ceremonial vessels be made of porcelain.

 

 

 

 

 

14. Dish with moulded and incised decoration beneath a monochrome glaze.

Jingdezhen, Jinagxi province;

Hongwu period (1368-1398)

Height: 4,1cm.

Diameter: 19 cm.

The British Museum

 

This shallow dish has rounded sides and an everted rim. It stands on a spreading foot ring. On the inside, it is decorated with two phoenixes among large and small ruyi  ( meaning “as you wish”) clouds in the cavetto and with three incised clouds in the centre.[35]

Although much attention has been focused on the red copper wares achieved under Hongwu, many white monochromes were excavated from the imperial kiln site at Jingdezhen from the Hongwu strata. White dishes of such quality were used at the court, especially for ceremonial purposes.

These ceremonials honoured the God of the moon and took place at the Altar of the moon, “Xiyuetan” in Chinese, in Beijing.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

15. Monk’s cap ewer.

Jingdezhen, Jiangxi province.

Early 15th century.

Height: 19,5 cm.

White porcelain jug made to resemble, in profile, the cap worn by Buddhist Monks in winter, covered with a transparent grey-toned glaze. Finely incised decoration appears under the glaze. The main decorative motif is lotus scrolls in various forms. Above the lotus scroll on the main body are the Eight Buddhist Emblems[36]. Above the foot is a lotus panel containing stylised flower spray. The strap handle has a ruyi ( meaning “ a you wish”) motif top & bottom with a floral scroll in between The cover is undecorated and has a tiny knob at the back. The base is unglazed. Percival David Foundation A426

The body of the ewer is well-refined white porcelain and the thick clear glaze has only the faintest blue-green tinge. The vessel’s swelling body rises from a low foot and constricts before joining the neck section , which forms an integral part with the spout. It has been said that the vessel almost certainly dates from the Yongle period.[37]

A similar piece is in the British museum.

16. Bowl with monochrome white glaze.

Jingdezhen, Jiangxi province.

Hongzhi mark and period. ( r.1488-1505)

Height: 9cm.

Diameter: 20,2 cm.

The British Museum

 

This finely potted bowl has rounded sides, a flared rim and a tapering foot. Underneath the blue-tinged glaze is the mark of Hongzhi. Hongzhi’s white wares have the reputation of being finely potted. With its everted rim, this bowl is characteristic of the white monochrome bowls achieved for the court of Hongzhi.

 In the same way as piece number 10, Hongzhi imperial porcelains were mostly marked with six neat pale blue kaishu characters, which read “Daming Hongzhi Nianzhi” (Made in the Ming Dynasty, Hongzhi reign period).

 

 

 

 

 

Bibliography:

 

Ayers, J.,  The Baur Collection vol II., Geneva, 1968.

 

Hammer and Hammer,  The Potter’s Dictionary of Materials and Techniques, third edition, London, 1991.

 

Harrison-Hall, J.,  Ming Ceramics in the  British Museum, 2001.

 

Ho Y.,  ‘Ideological implication of major sacrifices in early Ming’, Ming studies, no.6, Spring 1978.

 

Hobson, R.L.,  Chinese Pottery and Porcelain, London, 1915.

 

Hong Kong Museum of Art,  Monochrome Ceramics of Ming and Qing Dynasties, Hong Kong, 1977.

 

Jenyns, R.S.,  Ming Pottery and Porcelain, 1953.

 

Lau C.,  ‘Ceremonial Monochrome Wares of the Ming Dynasty’ in Scott, R., ed., The porcelains of Jingdezhen, Colloquy 16, 1993, pp.83-100.

 

Lion-Goldsmith D.,  Ming Porcelain, Thames and Hudson, London, 1978.

 

Medley, M.,  Illustrated Catalogue of Ming and Qing Monochrome Wares in the Percival David Foundation of Chinese Art, 1989.

 

Pierson, S.,  Earth, Fire and Water: Chinese Ceramic Technology, 1996.

 

Pierson, S.,  The Percival David collection: A Guide to the collection, 2001.

Scott, R., ed., Chinese Copper Red Wares, Percival David Foundation Monograph Series No. 3, 1992.

Scott, R., Imperial Taste : Chinese Ceramics from the Percival David Foundation of Chinsese Art, London, 1989.

 

Scott, R.E.,  Percival David Foundation of Chinese Art: A guide to the collection, London, 1979.

 

Vainker, S.,  Chinese Pottery and Porcelain, 1991.

 

Valenstein, S.G.,  A handbook of Chinese Ceramics, 2nd edition, New York and London, 1989.

 

Wang T.,  Tiantan, Temple of Heaven, China Esperanto Press, Beijing, 1991.

 

Yan C.,  Beijing: The Treasures of an Ancient Capital, Morning Glory Press, Beijing, 1987.

 



[1]     During the ceremonies, smooth music accompanied the steps of the emperor as well as the ones of the officials. “ The colourful banners are displayed in all four quarters” are some of the lyrics of a musical theme played for the emperor during Temple of Heaven’s ceremonies, in Ho Y., ‘Ideological implication of major sacrifices in early Ming’, Ming studies, no.6, Spring 1978, p.81.

[2]     Ayers, J., The Baur Collection vol II., Geneva, 1968

[3]     Vainker, S., Chinese Pottery and Porcelain, p.197.

[4]     Law, C.,  ‘Ceremonial Monochrome Wares of the Ming Dynasty’ in Scott, R., ed., The porcelains of Jingdezhen, Colloquy 16, 1993, p.86. This is an order of Hongwu Emperor (1368-1398), dated 1370.

[5]     Law, C.,  ‘Ceremonial Monochrome Wares of the Ming Dynasty’ in Scott, R., ed., The porcelains of Jingdezhen, Colloquy 16, 1993, p.83.

[6]     Pierson, S., Earth, Fire and Water: Chinese Ceramic Technology, 1996, p.24.

[7]     Law, C.,  ‘Ceremonial Monochrome Wares of the Ming Dynasty’ in Scott, R., ed., The porcelains of Jingdezhen, Colloquy 16, 1993, p.83.

[8]     Ming studies, no.6, Spring 1978, p.81.

[9]     Law, C.,  ‘Ceremonial Monochrome Wares of the Ming Dynasty’ in Scott, R., ed., The porcelains of Jingdezhen, Colloquy 16, 1993, p.96.

[10]    Medley, M., Illustrated Catalogue of Ming and Qing Monochrome Wares in the Percival David Foundation of Chinese Art, 1989.

[11] The XuanDe emperor reigned from 1426 to 1425.

[12]    Rawson, J., Ming Ceramics in the British Museum, p. 20.

[13]    Jenyns, R.S., Ming Pottery and Porcelain, 1953.

[14]    Scott, R., ed., Chinese Copper Red Wares, Percival David Foundation Monograph Series No. 3, 1992, p.24.

[15]    Medley, M., Illustrated Catalogue of Ming and Qing Monochrome Wares in the Percival David Foundation of Chinese Art, 1989, p.1.

[16]    Vainker, S., Chinese Pottery and Porcelain, 1991, p.184.

[17]    Jenyns, R.S., Ming Pottery and Porcelain, pp.56-57.

[18]    Law, C.,  ‘Ceremonial Monochrome Wares of the Ming Dynasty’ in Scott, R., ed., The porcelains of Jingdezhen, Colloquy 16, 1993, p.97-98. The original surface does no longer exist.

[19]    Pierson, S., Earth, Fire and Water: Chinese Ceramic Technology, 1996, p.24.

 

[20]    Medley, M., Illustrated Catalogue of Ming and Qing Monochrome Wares in the Percival David Foundation of Chinese Art, 1989, p.29.

 

[21]    Medley, M., Illustrated Catalogue of Ming and Qing Monochrome Wares in the Percival David Foundation of Chinese Art, 1989, p.34.

[22]    Hong Kong Museum of Art, Monochrome Ceramics of Ming and Qing Dynasties, Hong Kong, 1977, p.129.

 

[23]    Rawson, J., Ming Ceramics in the British Museum, p. 344.

[24]    Rawson, J., Ming Ceramics in the British Museum, p. 104.

[25]    Vainker, S., Chinese Pottery and Porcelain, 1991, p.187.

[26]    Medley, M., Illustrated Catalogue of Ming and Qing Monochrome Wares in the Percival David Foundation of Chinese Art, 1989, p.34.

[27]    Scott, R., Imperial Taste: Chinese Ceramics from the Percival David Foundation of Chinese Art, London, 1989.

[28]    Scott, R., ed., Chinese Copper Red Wares, Percival David Foundation Monograph Series No. 3, 1992, p.24.

[29]    Harrison-Hall, J., Ming Ceramics in the British Museum, 2001.

[30]    Medley, M., Illustrated Catalogue of Ming and Qing Monochrome Wares in the Percival David Foundation of Chinese Art, 1989, p.37.

 

[31]     Medley, M.,  Illustrated Catalogue of Ming and Qing Monochrome Wares in the Percival David Foundation of Chinese Art, 1989.

 

 

[32]    Medley, M., Illustrated Catalogue of Ming and Qing Monochrome Wares in the Percival David Foundation of Chinese Art, 1989, p.3.

 

[33]    Jenyns, R.S., Ming Pottery and Porcelain, 1953, p.143.

[34]    Harrison-Hall, J., Ming Ceramics in the British Museum, 2001.

[35]     Harrison-Hall, J.,  Ming Ceramics in the  British Museum, 2001.

[36]         Although the eight Buddhist treasures appeared during the Yuan dynasty, it is only under Yongle that an order to these symbols was arranged (the wheel, the conch, the canopy, the umbrella, the lotus flower, the fish, the vase, and the knot).

[37]         Scott, R., Imperial Taste : Chinese Ceramics from the Percival David Foundation of Chinsese Art, London, 1989.